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Cancer Diagnosis

A remarkable recent increase in the diagnosis of vocal-cord cancer in young adults appears to be the result of infection with strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) that also cause cervical cancer and other malignancies. Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describe finding HPV infection in all tested samples of vocal-cord cancer from 10 patients diagnosed at age 30 or under, most of whom were non-smokers.

A new blood test developed by University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers shows promise for tracking HPV-linked head and neck cancer patients to ensure they remain cancer-free after treatment.

Compared with non-drinkers, men who consumed at least seven drinks per week during adolescence (ages 15-19) had three times the odds of being diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer.

Background: "The prostate is an organ that grows rapidly during puberty, so it's potentially more susceptible to carcinogenic exposure during the adolescent years," said Allott. "For this reason, we wanted to investigate if heavy alcohol consumption in early life was associated with the aggressiveness of prostate cancer later."

Follow-up imaging for women with non-metastatic breast cancer varies widely across the country, according to a new study led by researchers at UC San Francisco. Some patients go without the annual mammograms that experts recommend, while others with the same cancer diagnosis receive full-body scans that expose them to significant amounts of radiation and are not recommended by experts.

Please give an overview of the past research into machine learning and artificial intelligence in medical imaging. What are we currently able to do with this research?

The two major tasks in medical imaging that appear to be naturally predestined to be solved with AI algorithms are segmentation and classification. Most of techniques used in medical imaging were conventional image processing, or more widely formulated computer vision algorithms.

 

Using sound waves, an international team of researchers has developed a gentle, contact-free method for separating circulating tumor cells from blood samples that is fast and efficient enough for clinical use.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are small pieces of a tumor that break away and flow through the bloodstream. They contain a wealth of information about the tumor, such as its type, physical characteristics and genetic mutations.

Medicare patients who undergo mammography screening also are more likely to follow up with other recommended preventive services such as cervical cancer screenings or Pap smear, bone mass measurement or a flu vaccine, as compared to unscreened women, according to a new study led by researchers at NYU School of Medicine.

This study published online June 5 in Radiology, a journal of the Radiological Society of North America.

The researchers conclude that these findings, thought to be the first of their kind, could affect both policy and clinical practice.

Considerably more cases of suspected cancer can today be identified early within primary care. Partly based on symptoms but also statistics on the patients' visits to health centers, indicates research from Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

With at least two in three Australians diagnosed with skin cancer before the age of 70, monitoring moles and skin is vital in detecting skin cancer early for a generation of people who spent much of their upbringing in the sun (often with little to no protection).

 

To meet the massive unmet need in this area, Research Professor at UniSA’s Future Industries Institute, Professor Tarl Prow led the team that has created a new needle device that will revolutionize how doctors test patients for rashes and diseases.

At the heart of any cancer diagnosis or treatment are cells. If one thinks of the cell components controlling gene activation as a Russian nesting-doll of gene regulatory layers, within those increasingly smaller tiers are short pieces of non-coding DNA called enhancers. A study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reveals enhancers as a significant area of research for diagnosing and/or treating many cancers.

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