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Medical Imaging

Case Western Reserve University researchers and partners, including a collaborator at Cleveland Clinic, are pushing the boundaries of how "smart" diagnostic-imaging machines identify cancers--and uncovering clues outside the tumor to tell whether a patient will respond well to chemotherapy.

A remarkable recent increase in the diagnosis of vocal-cord cancer in young adults appears to be the result of infection with strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) that also cause cervical cancer and other malignancies. Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describe finding HPV infection in all tested samples of vocal-cord cancer from 10 patients diagnosed at age 30 or under, most of whom were non-smokers.

Please give an overview of the past research into machine learning and artificial intelligence in medical imaging. What are we currently able to do with this research?

The two major tasks in medical imaging that appear to be naturally predestined to be solved with AI algorithms are segmentation and classification. Most of techniques used in medical imaging were conventional image processing, or more widely formulated computer vision algorithms.

 

A new approach to analyzing prostate gland tissue may help address a major challenge in treating prostate cancer - determining which tumors are unlikely to progress and which could be life threatening and require treatment. In their report published in the journal Scientific Reports, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) investigators describe how cellular metabolites - proteins produced as the results metabolic processes - in apparently benign tissues from cancerous prostates not only can determine the grade and stage of the tumor but also can predict its risk of recurrence.

Over 100 types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) are transmitted from an infected person to another via the skin or through moist membrane linings such as in the vagina, anus, vulva, cervix, mouth, or throat.

An infection can occur in the body and eventually clear up on its own. However, in some cases of infection with particular types of HPV, it can lead to cancer if it enters cells in the body and begins to change the way they function, affecting either the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA).

 

 

The human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect the genital areas of the body. It can also affect the human lungs and throat epithelium, causing a condition called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

HPV and Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis

Lung infection caused by HPV is mostly due to two types, namely, Type 6 and Type 11. These account for more than 90% of all cases.

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix can lead to cervical cancer in a small percentage of cases. HPV infection is usually cleared from the body by the immune system within approximately two years. Persistent or recurrent infection may lead to the development of cervical cancer.

 

 

Genital warts develop in both men and women as a result of infection by some types of the virus known as human papilloma virus (HPV). They are the second most common sexually transmitted disease. Sometimes they can be passed on to children during childbirth, through an infected vagina.

HPV can also cause warts in other parts of the body, such as inside the mouth, and the upper respiratory tract. The latter occurs in a rare condition called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

 

 

A new vaccine against HPV infections has the potential to prevent 90 per cent of all of the conditions triggered by the human papillomavirus. These are the findings of a randomised, controlled, international study involving a new, 9-component vaccine against HPV used on more than 14,000 young women aged between 16 and 26 years. The study was led by Elmar Joura from the University Department of Gynaecology at the MedUni Vienna. The study has now been published in the highly respected "New England Journal of Medicine".

Gardasil is a relatively new vaccine used to prevent the spread of the human papilloma virus (HPV). By protecting against HPV infection, Gardasil reduces the prevalence of complications associated with the infection such as the development of cervical cancer, vaginal or vulvar cancer, penile and anal cancer, precancerous changes in the cervix, throat cancer and genital warts.

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