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Carcinoma

A new study reports that a type of cervical cancer that is less amenable to Pap testing is increasing in several subpopulations of women, pointing to the growing importance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination. The study appears early online in Preventive Medicine.

Bottom Line: Six factors were associated with invasive recurrence of breast cancer after a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), according to data from a meta-analysis.

Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

Osaka University-centered study examines large-scale population survey and identifies increase in cervical cancer rate, along with younger patients' surprising resistance to radiation therapy

Cervical cancer rates can be greatly reduced through preventive measures against the human papillomavirus (HPV) along with proactive cancer screening. Japan may be showing how ignoring that knowledge could prove hazardous, as it is the only advanced economy in which the cervical cancer rate is increasing. New research adds further nuance to this situation.

A therapeutic vaccine can boost antibodies and T cells, helping them infiltrate tumors and fight off human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Researchers from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania tested the immunotherapy approach in two groups of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa) and found 86 percent showed elevated T cell activity. It is also the first study to show that the vaccine can help immune cells infiltrate tumors.

A new blood test developed by University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers shows promise for tracking HPV-linked head and neck cancer patients to ensure they remain cancer-free after treatment.

A highly sensitive blood test that detects minute traces of cancer-specific DNA has been shown to accurately determine whether patients with HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are free from cancer following radiation therapy. Findings will be presented today at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).

Every year, more than 330,000 people are diagnosed with kidney cancer worldwide. More than 80 percent of those new cases are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). When caught early, the five-year survival rate is more than 90 percent. Patients diagnosed with more invasive tumors, however, have dramatically poorer prognoses, with five-year survival rates of 50 percent and 10 percent for patients diagnosed at stages III and IV respectively. Early detection could improve the overall survival rate in patients at high risk for death from RCC.

The research showed that a protein called KIM-1, which is elevated in the blood of some RCC patients at the time of diagnosis, could also be used as a tool to predict onset of the disease up to five years prior to diagnosis.

Lead investigator Rupal Bhatt (Harvard Medical School) says the study showed a significant association between plasma KIM-1 concentrations and the risk of renal cell carcinoma.

Many cancer patients suffer from a loss of body mass known as cachexia. Approximately 20 percent of cancer-related deaths are attributed to the syndrome of cachexia, which in cancer patients is often characterized by a rapid and/or severe loss of fat and skeletal muscle. Dr. Melinda Sheffield-Moore, professor and head of the Department of Health and Kinesiology, along with researchers at University of Texas Medical Branch, recently published research showing that the hormone testosterone is effective at combatting cachexia in cancer patients and improving quality of life.

The components of the immune system that trigger allergic reactions may also help protect the skin against cancer, suggest new findings.

The research, led by Imperial College London, highlights previously unknown skin defenses - and could open avenues for developing new skin cancer treatments.

The early-stage study, published in the journal Nature Immunology, may also provide clues into why allergies are on the rise. Estimates suggest 44 per cent of Britons now suffer from at least one allergy - but the reasons behind the increase are unknown.

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