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Carcinomas

Whilst it is widely accepted that smoking causes lung cancer, a lesser known fact is that ~6000 non-smokers die of lung cancer every year in the UK. One potential reason for this number is air pollution, according to a recent report by Public Health England (PHE). As these patients do not smoke, they are often overlooked when it comes to diagnosing lung cancer, and diagnosed late, with poor outcomes.

Healthy lung and lung with cancer 

A remarkable recent increase in the diagnosis of vocal-cord cancer in young adults appears to be the result of infection with strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) that also cause cervical cancer and other malignancies. Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describe finding HPV infection in all tested samples of vocal-cord cancer from 10 patients diagnosed at age 30 or under, most of whom were non-smokers.

A new method predicts the course of HPV-negative head and neck cancer after radiation chemotherapy. According to a recent article in the journal ‘Clinical Cancer Research’, five microRNAs (miRNAs) can provide the decisive data. The work was conducted at the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) in close collaboration with the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK).

 

Irradiation plan of a head and neck tumor. © University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Every year, more than 330,000 people are diagnosed with kidney cancer worldwide. More than 80 percent of those new cases are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). When caught early, the five-year survival rate is more than 90 percent. Patients diagnosed with more invasive tumors, however, have dramatically poorer prognoses, with five-year survival rates of 50 percent and 10 percent for patients diagnosed at stages III and IV respectively. Early detection could improve the overall survival rate in patients at high risk for death from RCC.

A pair of researchers from the University of Delaware Department of Medical and Molecular Sciences are investigating genetic variations in DNA replication of human papillomaviruses (HPV) and its correlation with HPV-related cancers.

Certain head and neck cancers that are positive for high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have a better prognosis and may need less aggressive treatment.

To help ensure that patients with these cancers are accurately diagnosed and effectively treated, the College of American Pathologists (CAP) today released its newest evidence-based practice guideline, "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Testing in Head and Neck Carcinomas,"

A genetic malfunction that causes DNA instability in people with the blood disorder Fanconi anemia may put them at high risk for squamous cell carcinomas linked to human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a study posted online ahead of print by Oncogene.

New diagnoses for two types of skin cancer increased in recent years, according to a Mayo Clinic-led team of researchers.

Their paper, published today in Mayo Clinic Proceedings, uses medical records from the Rochester Epidemiology Project to compare diagnoses of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma ─ both nonmelanoma skin cancers ─ between 2000 and 2010 to diagnoses in prior years. The Rochester Epidemiology project is a medical records linkage system and research collaborative in Minnesota and Wisconsin.

While squamous cell anal carcinomas are rare, representing only about 2% of digestive-system cancer diagnoses, these cancers, which are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), sometimes prove very difficult to treat, recurring or developing metastases following standard treatment. Seeking to identify new targets and therapeutic options for this disease, a multi-institutional team led by Patrick Boland, MD, of Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) conducted a multiplatform biomarker analysis in conjunction with Caris Life Sciences that revealed several actionable targets.

Omega-3 fatty acids, contained in oily fish such as salmon and trout, selectively inhibit growth and induce cell death in early and late-stage oral and skin cancers, according to new research from scientists at Queen Mary, University of London.

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