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For many women who thought they had beaten breast cancer, the news that it has roared back years later comes as an especially cruel diagnosis with no clear answers for why or how it recurs.

Now a team of Duke Cancer Institute researchers has filled in some critically unknown details that could lead to potential strategies to halt the process.

Experimenting in mice, the researchers tracked a series of events that enable a small reservoir of treatment-resistant cancer cells to awake from dormancy, grow and spread. The findings appear online in eLife.

Osaka University-led study shows how a high-fat diet and systemic inflammation contribute to prostate cancer progression

Osaka - Inflammation and evasion of the immune system have been reported to be some of the new hallmarks of cancer. Notably, a high-fat diet (HFD) causes obesity and chronic inflammation, and studies conducted on mice have shown that HFD could be associated with progression and survival of prostate cancer. In human studies, inflammation and immune cells are also linked to prostate cancer.

In a new study published online June 25, 2018 in Nature Medicine, UC San Francisco researchers have identified a key biological pathway in human cancer patients that appears to prime the immune system for a successful response to immunotherapy drugs known as checkpoint inhibitors.

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are powerful weapons our body's immune systems count on to fight infection and combat diseases like cancer, multiple sclerosis, and lupus. Finding ways to spark these potent cells into action could lead to more effective cancer treatments and vaccines.

While several chemical compounds have shown promise stimulating iNKT cells in mice, their ability to activate human iNKT cells has been limited.

Cancer therapies including radiation and chemotherapy seek to treat the disease by killing tumor cells. Now a team including researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have shown that the dead and dying cancer cells generated by chemotherapy and targeted cancer therapy paradoxically trigger inflammation that promotes aggressive tumor growth. In a study published today in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the team has illuminated the mechanism by which tumor cell death can drive primary tumor growth and metastasis.

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