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Human papillomavirus (HPV)

The UK government has announced that boys in England aged 12 to 13 years are to be vaccinated against human papillomavirus, or HPV. This injection would protect them against HPV infection. HPV infection has been linked to cervical cancer in women and oral, penile, throat and anal cancer among men.

 

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family. 3D illustration. Image Credit: Tatiana Shepeleva / Shutterstock

The Pap smear test has been used widely for the past five decades to understand and screen for early signs of cervical cancer. The conventional test has been largely replaced by a liquid-based Pap cytology test. Soon it may be replaced by another test – the Human papilloma virus test or the HPV test finds new research.

 

Results of a US study in this week’s issue of THE LANCET suggest that regular smear tests rather than colposcopy is the best way of monitoring low-grade cervical lesions among adolescents and young women.

Around 70% of sexually active women become infected with human pappiloma virus (HPV); around a quarter of women with HPV infection develop low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (LSIL); although LSIL are usually benign and disappear over time, they can develop into high-grade lesions, a precursor of cervical cancer.

Incorporating testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into cervical cancer screening has the potential for improving health benefits at a reasonable cost in France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, according to a new study in the June 15 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.

The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) today issued a clinical practice guideline on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for the prevention of cervical cancer. This is the first guideline on primary prevention of cervical cancer that is tailored to multiple regions of the world with different levels of socio-economic and structural resource settings, offering evidence-based guidance to health care providers worldwide.

As of this year, kids under the age of 15 only need 2 doses of HPV vaccine. New research out of Boston Medical Center, published online in the STD Journal, is the first published clinical evidence to support new recommendations by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for a two-dose HPV vaccine to prevent genital warts. BMC researchers found that the two-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides the same level of protection against genital warts as three doses, when given as directed.

Around one in nine men in the US. are infected with oral human papillomavirus (HPV), according to a study led by researchers at the University of Florida.

The infection is much more common among men who have had many oral sexual partners, those who have had sex with men and those who are also infected with genital HPV.

A new analysis of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in men shows that infection with one HPV type strongly increases the risk of reinfection with the same type. In fact, men who are infected with the type responsible for most HPV-related cancers are 20 times more likely to be reinfected within one year. This increased risk suggests that infection confers no natural immunity against HPV, as is often the case with other viruses.

Verrucas (verrucae) or plantar warts affect the pressure areas of the feet. These affect most individuals at some points in their lifetime. Most commonly affected are those between ages 12 and 16.

In most individuals the warts go away without therapy within 2 years. One thirds of cases are more resistant to therapy and may have persistent lesions beyond two years. 1-5

Verruca symptoms

Symptoms of plantar warts or verrucae include:

There are various types of warts, also known as verruca, that affect humans. These include the common wart, flat wart, plantar wart, filiform wart, periungual wart, mosaic wart and genital wart. Each type has specific characteristics that distinguish them from the other types of wart, as classified below.

Common Wart (Verruca Vulgaris)

Common warts may develop individually or in a small cluster in an area of the body. They commonly affect the knuckles, fingers and knees, but may appear on any part of the body.

Characteristics of the common wart include:

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