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Immunology

From this September, boys of 12 and 13 will receive the HPV vaccine in all UK schools, hopefully preventing mouth, throat, penile and anal cancers caused by this oncovirus.

This occurs 11 years after a similar program for girls. The whole HPV vaccine program is now expected to prevent more than 100,000 cancer cases by 2058. This includes over 64,000 cervical cancers, almost 20,000 other cancers in women, and 30,000 cancers in men.

A tumor-specific vaccine combined with an immune checkpoint inhibitor shrank tumors in one third of patients with incurable cancer related to the human papilloma virus (HPV) in a phase II clinical trial led by investigators at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and reported in JAMA Oncology.

In a spectacular new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have discovered a method of diagnosing a broad range of cancers at their early stages by utilizing a particular malaria protein, which sticks to cancer cells in blood samples. The researchers hope that this method can be used in cancer screenings in the near future.

Helminthic parasites, like hookworm and liver flukes (schistosomiasis), affect an estimated 1 billion people worldwide. Infection from hookworm and schistosomiasis result in a combined loss of as much as 92 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Little progress has been made to relieve this global burden and eradicate these parasites until now.

What are the most common disease-causing pathogens encountered by humans? Where do these pathogens reside in the environment?

The biggest disease-causing pathogens  are cold and flu, which are spread through respiratory secretions when someone sneezes, and contaminated environments. The questions for contaminated environments are; how do we keep the surface clean? And, how do we prevent individuals from touching a surface and then their faces including their mouths?

 

First-line Treatment With Checkpoint Inhibitors Associated With Improved Overall Survival For Patients With Melanoma Brain Metastases

Bottom Line: Among patients with cutaneous melanoma who had brain metastases (MBM), first-line treatment with a checkpoint inhibitor was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in median overall survival, according to results from a national cohort.

Journal in Which the Study was Published: Cancer Immunology Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.

The components of the immune system that trigger allergic reactions may also help protect the skin against cancer, suggest new findings.

The research, led by Imperial College London, highlights previously unknown skin defenses - and could open avenues for developing new skin cancer treatments.

The early-stage study, published in the journal Nature Immunology, may also provide clues into why allergies are on the rise. Estimates suggest 44 per cent of Britons now suffer from at least one allergy - but the reasons behind the increase are unknown.

Taking a biopsy of a brain tumor is a complicated and invasive surgical process, but a team of researchers at Washington University in St. Louis is developing a way that allows them to detect tumor biomarkers through a simple blood test.

Existing microscopy-based methods of detecting apoptosis, such as TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling), have limited quantitative capabilities due to insufficient signal-to-noise ratios. Researchers at the National Cancer Institute and National Cancer Institute-Frederick have addressed this issue via development of a highly specific apoptosis assay designed for immunofluorescence microscopy analysis of fixed core needle biopsy specimens.

Taking a biopsy of a brain tumor is a complicated and invasive surgical process, but a team of researchers at Washington University in St. Louis is developing a way that allows them to detect tumor biomarkers through a simple blood test.

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