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lung cancer

Whilst it is widely accepted that smoking causes lung cancer, a lesser known fact is that ~6000 non-smokers die of lung cancer every year in the UK. One potential reason for this number is air pollution, according to a recent report by Public Health England (PHE). As these patients do not smoke, they are often overlooked when it comes to diagnosing lung cancer, and diagnosed late, with poor outcomes.

Healthy lung and lung with cancer 

To explain a person's actions in the present, it sometimes helps to understand their past, including where they come from and how they were raised. This is also true of tumors. Delving into a tumor's cellular lineage, a Ludwig Cancer Research study shows, can reveal weaknesses to target for customized therapies.

The findings, detailed in the April 24 issue of the journal Nature, also illustrate how knowledge of the biochemistry and microenvironment of the tissue from which a tumor arises can help predict the genetic alterations its cancer cells are likely to undergo.

Case Western Reserve University researchers and partners, including a collaborator at Cleveland Clinic, are pushing the boundaries of how "smart" diagnostic-imaging machines identify cancers--and uncovering clues outside the tumor to tell whether a patient will respond well to chemotherapy.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab, have become important tools for managing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Assessing the level of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expressed by a tumor can help clinicians determine how the patient should be treated. A report in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes a novel and rapid approach for quantifying PD-L1 expression levels in tumors that requires only small amounts of tissue that can be collected using minimally-invasive bronchoscopy techniques.

The American Cancer Society is outlining its vision for cancer control in the decades ahead in a series of articles that begins publishing today. The series of articles forms the basis of a national cancer control plan; a blueprint toward the control of cancer and a mortality reduction goal for the year 2035.

A four-protein biomarker blood test improves lung cancer risk assessment over existing guidelines that rely solely upon smoking history, capturing risk for people who have ever smoked, not only for heavy smokers, an international research team reports in JAMA Oncology.

Please give an overview of the past research into machine learning and artificial intelligence in medical imaging. What are we currently able to do with this research?

The two major tasks in medical imaging that appear to be naturally predestined to be solved with AI algorithms are segmentation and classification. Most of techniques used in medical imaging were conventional image processing, or more widely formulated computer vision algorithms.

 

Considerably more cases of suspected cancer can today be identified early within primary care. Partly based on symptoms but also statistics on the patients' visits to health centers, indicates research from Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

A new study led by researchers at Hokkaido University has shown that obesity may enhance the progression of cancer, while aspirin may protect against it.

 

Obesity is a known risk factor for some of the most common forms of cancer, including colon, pancreatic and breast cancer.

Studies have already demonstrated the role of obesity in promoting tumor growth and cancer progression, but the role it plays in the initiation of cancer is less clear.

Every year, health care providers in the United States discover more than 1.6 million lung nodules in patients. Many are "incidentally detected," meaning they are found during evaluation for an unrelated cause (for example, a chest X-ray after a fall). Although 75 to 85 percent of these incidentally detected nodules turn out to be benign, they can pose a diagnostic dilemma for providers.

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