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Case Western Reserve University researchers and partners, including a collaborator at Cleveland Clinic, are pushing the boundaries of how "smart" diagnostic-imaging machines identify cancers--and uncovering clues outside the tumor to tell whether a patient will respond well to chemotherapy.

New findings about a fatal form of blood cancer could aid the development of new drugs with significantly less harmful side effects than existing chemotherapy.

The discovery could lead to novel treatments that efficiently eliminate blood cancer cells in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), without harming healthy blood cells.

Researchers have discovered how a protein in the body plays a key role in AML - an aggressive cancer of white blood cells with very poor survival rates.

A remarkable recent increase in the diagnosis of vocal-cord cancer in young adults appears to be the result of infection with strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) that also cause cervical cancer and other malignancies. Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describe finding HPV infection in all tested samples of vocal-cord cancer from 10 patients diagnosed at age 30 or under, most of whom were non-smokers.

A therapeutic vaccine can boost antibodies and T cells, helping them infiltrate tumors and fight off human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Researchers from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania tested the immunotherapy approach in two groups of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa) and found 86 percent showed elevated T cell activity. It is also the first study to show that the vaccine can help immune cells infiltrate tumors.

An international research team led by a scientist at the University of California, Riverside, has for the first time identified individual types of the human papillomavirus, or HPV, that are specifically linked to HIV infection.

The study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, concludes that a person with any HPV type, more than one HPV type, or high-risk HPV is more likely to acquire HIV.

The study found the following HPV types are linked to HIV: HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58.

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has released new recommendations on screening for cervical cancer. These latest recommendations continue the trend of decreasing participant burden by lengthening screening intervals, making the "annual Pap" a historical artifact. Since its introduction 75 years ago, exfoliative cytology commonly known as the Pap test has been the "gold-standard" screening test for cervical cancer.

Helminthic parasites, like hookworm and liver flukes (schistosomiasis), affect an estimated 1 billion people worldwide. Infection from hookworm and schistosomiasis result in a combined loss of as much as 92 million disability-adjusted life years annually. Little progress has been made to relieve this global burden and eradicate these parasites until now.

Every year, more than 330,000 people are diagnosed with kidney cancer worldwide. More than 80 percent of those new cases are renal cell carcinomas (RCC). When caught early, the five-year survival rate is more than 90 percent. Patients diagnosed with more invasive tumors, however, have dramatically poorer prognoses, with five-year survival rates of 50 percent and 10 percent for patients diagnosed at stages III and IV respectively. Early detection could improve the overall survival rate in patients at high risk for death from RCC.

The research showed that a protein called KIM-1, which is elevated in the blood of some RCC patients at the time of diagnosis, could also be used as a tool to predict onset of the disease up to five years prior to diagnosis.

Lead investigator Rupal Bhatt (Harvard Medical School) says the study showed a significant association between plasma KIM-1 concentrations and the risk of renal cell carcinoma.

Some people respond well to both aerobic exercise and strength training, while others don't. And some of us respond well to only one of those things, but not both. Scientists at Joslin Diabetes Center now have uncovered a surprising molecular "switch" that may help to explain why this happens.

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