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ovarian cancer

The use of molecular biomarkers in minimally invasive sampling opens a promising perspective for the early detection of endometrial cancer. This is the conclusion reached by the members of Screenwide research group, formed by researchers from the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL) and the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-Hospitalet).

Using human cancer cells, tumor and blood samples from cancer patients, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine have uncovered the role of a neurotransmitter in the spread of aggressive cancers. Neurotransmitters are chemical "messengers" that transmit impulses from neurons to other target cells.

To explain a person's actions in the present, it sometimes helps to understand their past, including where they come from and how they were raised. This is also true of tumors. Delving into a tumor's cellular lineage, a Ludwig Cancer Research study shows, can reveal weaknesses to target for customized therapies.

The findings, detailed in the April 24 issue of the journal Nature, also illustrate how knowledge of the biochemistry and microenvironment of the tissue from which a tumor arises can help predict the genetic alterations its cancer cells are likely to undergo.

cientists have developed a technique that allows them to measure how well cancer drugs reach their targets inside the body. It shows individual cancer cells in a tumor in real time, revealing which cells interact with the drug and which cells the drug fails to reach.

In the future, the findings, published in Nature Communications, could help clinicians decide the best course and delivery of treatment for cancer patients.

The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma, a cancer affecting plasma cells, traditionally forces patients to suffer through a painful bone biopsy. During that procedure, doctors insert a bone-biopsy needle through an incision to get a bone marrow sample -; or make a larger incision and remove a section of bone via surgery.

But the days of using bone biopsies to guide treatment for multiple myeloma and other cancers, such as many types of leukemia, may be numbered.

Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered a cellular pathway that selectively regulates a mutant protein linked to the growth of ovarian cancer.

 

Credit: Chinnapong/Shutterstock.com

They have also identified a key regulator of the pathway and suggest that drugs designed to target this regulator could lead to improved ways of controlling ovarian cancer growth.

As she herded her two young sons into bed one evening late last December, Laura Devitt flipped through her phone to check on the routine blood tests that had been performed as part of her annual physical. She logged onto the patient portal link on her electronic medical record, scanned the results and felt her stomach clench with fear.

Devitt’s white blood cell count and several other tests were flagged as abnormal. Beyond the raw numbers, there was no explanation.

An international research consortium led by Dr Jordi Surrallés, director of the Genetics Service at the Hospital de Sant Pau and professor of Genetics at the UAB, and by Dr Miquel Àngel Pujana, director of the ProCURE Research Program of the Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO, IDIBELL), has identified a novel gene involved in this type of cancer, known as EDC4.

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers developed a single blood test that screens for eight common cancer types and helps identify the location of the cancer.

The test, called CancerSEEK, is a unique noninvasive, multianalyte test that simultaneously evaluates levels of eight cancer proteins and the presence of cancer gene mutations from circulating DNA in the blood. The test is aimed at screening for eight common cancer types that account for more than 60 percent of cancer deaths in the U.S. Five of the cancers covered by the test currently have no screening test.

The immune cells that are trained to fight off the body's invaders can become defective. It's what allows cancer to develop. So most research has targeted these co-called effector T-cells.

But a new study takes a step back and considers: What if the problem isn't with the effector T-cells but starts higher up the cellular chain?

And so researchers looked at naïve T-cells – a type of immune cell that hasn't yet been triggered to fight. Naïve T-cells differentiate into the fighter effector T-cells.

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