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Whilst it is widely accepted that smoking causes lung cancer, a lesser known fact is that ~6000 non-smokers die of lung cancer every year in the UK. One potential reason for this number is air pollution, according to a recent report by Public Health England (PHE). As these patients do not smoke, they are often overlooked when it comes to diagnosing lung cancer, and diagnosed late, with poor outcomes.

Healthy lung and lung with cancer 

An emerging new type of oral cancer in men has increased over the last 15 years. The culprit is human papillomavirus (HPV), and key social factors are contributing to its growth. April is Oral Cancer Awareness Month, and with the ongoing rise in cases of throat cancer linked to HPV, many medical and dental professionals are encouraging the public to take measures in an effort to help prevent this form of cancer.

Infection with high-risk strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which have been linked to cancer, might increase the risk of heart and blood vessel or cardiovascular disease, especially among women with obesity or other cardiovascular risk factors, according to new research in Circulation Research, an American Heart Association journal.

A remarkable recent increase in the diagnosis of vocal-cord cancer in young adults appears to be the result of infection with strains of human papilloma virus (HPV) that also cause cervical cancer and other malignancies. Investigators from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) describe finding HPV infection in all tested samples of vocal-cord cancer from 10 patients diagnosed at age 30 or under, most of whom were non-smokers.

Cervical cancer can be insidious. Changes to the cervix are often detected with a pap smear, but for those with limited access to health care, cervical and vaginal cancers can go unnoticed for years--silently growing, spreading and invading other organs--and by the time they're detected, they may be so advanced that the patient's prognosis is poor and her treatment options few.

A new method predicts the course of HPV-negative head and neck cancer after radiation chemotherapy. According to a recent article in the journal ‘Clinical Cancer Research’, five microRNAs (miRNAs) can provide the decisive data. The work was conducted at the Helmholtz Zentrum München and the University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (LMU) in close collaboration with the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK).

 

Irradiation plan of a head and neck tumor. © University Hospital of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely known to cause nearly all cases of cervical cancer. However, you might not know that HPV also causes 70 percent of oropharyngeal cancer, a subset of head and neck cancers that affect the mouth, tongue, and tonsils. Although vaccines that protect against HPV infection are now available, they are not yet widespread, especially in men, nor do they address the large number of currently infected cancer patients.

A therapeutic vaccine can boost antibodies and T cells, helping them infiltrate tumors and fight off human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer. Researchers from the Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania tested the immunotherapy approach in two groups of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa) and found 86 percent showed elevated T cell activity. It is also the first study to show that the vaccine can help immune cells infiltrate tumors.

A highly sensitive blood test that detects minute traces of cancer-specific DNA has been shown to accurately determine whether patients with HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are free from cancer following radiation therapy. Findings will be presented today at the 60th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO).

Compared with non-drinkers, men who consumed at least seven drinks per week during adolescence (ages 15-19) had three times the odds of being diagnosed with clinically significant prostate cancer.

Background: "The prostate is an organ that grows rapidly during puberty, so it's potentially more susceptible to carcinogenic exposure during the adolescent years," said Allott. "For this reason, we wanted to investigate if heavy alcohol consumption in early life was associated with the aggressiveness of prostate cancer later."

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