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Thyroid cancer

 

 

Some thyroid cancers can come back after removal, so monitoring for recurrence is important.

 

A Loyola Medicine study has found that new ultrasound guidelines can reliably identify pediatric patients who should be biopsied for thyroid cancer.

The study by radiologist Jennifer Lim-Dunham, MD, and colleagues was presented May 18 during the Society for Pediatric Radiology's annual meeting in Nashville.

Thyroid cancer is a common cause of cancer in teenagers, and the incidence is increasing for reasons that are unclear. Adolescents have a 10-fold greater incidence than younger children, and the disease is five times more common in girls than boys.

A Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine researcher has compiled evidence from more than 100 publications to show how obesity increases risk of 13 different cancers in young adults. The meta-analysis describes how obesity has shifted certain cancers to younger age groups, and intensified cellular mechanisms promoting the diseases.

A first-of-its-kind drug targeting a fused gene found in many types of cancer was effective in 93 percent of pediatric patients tested, researchers at UT Southwestern's Simmons Cancer Center announced.

Most cancer drugs are targeted to specific organs or locations in the body. Larotrectinib is the first cancer drug to receive FDA breakthrough therapy designation for patients with a specific fusion of two genes in the cancer cell, no matter what cancer type. The research appears in The Lancet Oncology.

A first-of-its-kind drug targeting a fused gene found in many types of cancer was effective in 93 percent of pediatric patients tested, researchers at UT Southwestern's Simmons Cancer Center announced.

Most cancer drugs are targeted to specific organs or locations in the body. Larotrectinib is the first cancer drug to receive FDA breakthrough therapy designation for patients with a specific fusion of two genes in the cancer cell, no matter what cancer type. The research appears in The Lancet Oncology.

Early diagnosis in thyroid cancer can improve a patient's likelihood of recovery, but current screening methods use instruments with poor sensitivity and can yield inaccurate results. Consequently, doctors often have to rely on incomplete information to make diagnostic decisions and recommend treatments, and this can lead to patients receiving unnecessary surgeries or experiencing a reduced quality of life.

Thyroid cancer is a disease with good cure rates in most cases. In 5% of patients, however, the tumor becomes refractory to the available therapies and may spread all over the body, causing death.

In a study conducted at the University of São Paulo's Biomedical Science Institute (ICB-USP) in Brazil, researchers discovered that increasing tumor aggressiveness is accompanied by decreasing expression of 52 microRNAs - small RNA molecules that do not code for proteins but perform a regulatory function in several cellular processes.

Thyroid nodules affect nearly two-thirds of the world population. Fine-needle biopsy with cytologic evaluation remains the diagnostic test of choice to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules yet fails to discriminate as benign or malignant in up to one-third of cases.

This review discusses the limitation of current cytopathologic evaluation, the development of thyroid molecular testing, and the strengths and limitations of commercially available tests. Initial cytomolecular testing sought to identify specific gene mutations associated with thyroid cancer.

Tags: Thyroid cancer, screening16/09/2017

Final Recommendation Statement

Thyroid Cancer: Screening

Recommendations made by the USPSTF are independent of the U.S. government. They should not be construed as an official position of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

 

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